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- Analysis of Existing Instruments (cont.)
- Assessment Process Model
- Assessment Framework: Activities
- 1. Activity Goals
- 2. Mediating Factors
- 3. Characteristics of Existing Conditions: “What”
- 4. P-E Transactions: “How Well” or “How Much”
- 5. Attributions: “Why”
- Assessment Framework: Interpretation
Analysis of Existing Instruments (cont.)
Graphics: Photos of seniors with a stepped entrance and an inaccessible bathtub.
- In-Depth Analysis of 25 Instruments
- Identified a representative sample of instruments across each of the 6 purposes identified (work accommodation, job analysis, computer access, home modification, educational accommodation, functional capacity)
- Deconstructed 20 instruments to develop a conceptual framework for categorizing information
- Revised and adapted framework
- Validated framework with 5 instruments
- Analyzed 10 work-related instruments (job, computer, workplace)
Assessment Process Model
Graphic depicting flow model of the assessment process. Process begins with Problems (Activity Goals), is examined according to person, place, and performance to identify usability factors. The usability factors then define what the usability requirements of the potential interventions should be. Mediating factors then influence decision making before a best-fit solution is determined.
Assessment Framework: Activities
This table depicts the information that feeds into the assessment process. Across the top, rendering as columns, assessment activities are divided into Characterization of Problems (Investigation), Analysis of Problems (Interpretation), and Management of Problems (Intervention). Each of these categories is further broken down into sub activities which will be explained in the slides to follow. The categories are all crosscut by person, place, and performance, rendered as rows in the table.
- The primary activity of all assessment instruments
- Characterized by the acquisition of five types of information:
- Activity goals
- Mediating factors
- Characteristics of existing conditions
- Person-environment transactions
- Functional - kneeling, bending, lifting, hearing, communicating with co-workers
- Environmental - lighting, noise, chemicals, forklift, telephone, ladder
- Performance - answering the telephone and assisting callers, recording messages for department personnel
2. Mediating Factors
- Individual/Family/Caregiver Contributions
- Cultural, spiritual beliefs, values
- Employer/Organizational and Situational
- Regulations and policies
- Existing equipment, technologies, furniture
- Financing (e.g., decisions by third party payers)
- External Contributions
(extrinsic to and outside the control of the individual, practitioner or other members of the accommodations team)
- Legal restrictions – building codes, safety regulations
- Cost & Availability of equipment and/or training
3. Characteristics of Existing Conditions: “What”
- Person: Statements of health history and status, including: health condition, body structures, body functions, and personal capacity. For example, Grip strength, reach, and dexterity.
- Place: Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of attributes or characteristics of environmental features. For example, Door knob is 2 ½” and round, with a push button number sequence on door lock.
- Performance: Activity demands – whether an activity can be performed or not, and how it is performed. For example, Able to unlock the door using right hand, turns knob with left hand.
4. P-E Transactions: “How Well” or “How Much”
- Person: Outcomes associated with personal ability. These include the “-ing” words that describe one’s ability to perform a task (e.g., gripping, grasping, kneeling, pushing, pulling). For example, individual has difficulty gripping the door knob.
- Place: Outcomes associated with environmental features or characteristics. Grammatically, the environment, rather than ability or task, is presented as the object of the statement or question. For example, the door knob is difficult to use.
- Performance: Outcomes associated with the task. These include the “-ing” words that describe task performance (e.g., flushing, opening, using, getting in/out). For example, individual has difficulty turning the door knob.
5. Attributions: “Why”
- Person: A judgment about the impact of the health state on personal ability. For example, grip is not strong enough and causes too much pain.
- Place: Conclusions about why environmental features or characteristics cause activity limitations. For example, knob is too small.
- Performance: Inferences about why task performance causes activity limitations. For example, individual is not turning knob enough to open door.
Assessment Framework: Interpretation
Slide reiterates the assessment framework table. This table depicts the information that feeds into the assessment process. Across the top, rendering as columns, assessment activities are divided into Characterization of Problems (Investigation), Analysis of Problems (Interpretation), and Management of Problems (Intervention). Each of these categories is further broken down into sub activities which will be explained in the slides to follow. The categories are all crosscut by person, place, and performance, rendered as rows in the table.