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Workplace RERC


State of the Science Conference
September 15-16, 2005

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Safety Regulations: Barriers to Employment in a Manufacturing Environment

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Slides Index Slides 1-14 Slides 15-27

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  1. Safety Regulations: Barriers to Employment in a Manufacturing Environment
  2. Presentation Outline
  3. Importance of the Problem
  4. Facilitators to Employment in Manufacturing
  5. Facilitators to Employment in Manufacturing (cont.)
  6. Safety Difference
  7. Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Statistics
  8. Research Goal
  9. Background Information
  10. Occupational Safety and Health Act Agencies
  11. Agency Roles
  12. Key Terms:
  13. OSHA Penalties
  14. Four types of OSHA Standards

Slide 1 of 27

Safety Regulations: Barriers to Employment in a Manufacturing Environment


Slide 2 of 27

Presentation Outline

Presentation Outline

  • Importance of the Problem
  • Research Goal
  • Background Information
  • ADA v. Worker Safety in the Courts
  • Opportunities for Future Work

  • Slide 3 of 27

    Importance of the Problem

    Importance of the Problem
    Employment Opportunities in Manufacturing


    Slide 4 of 27

    Facilitators to Employment in Manufacturing

     

  • Automation in manufacturing is changing functional requirements of jobs
  • New skills are required to program, debug, and operate computer-based equipment
  • Ergonomic and Machine Design strategies address human factors issues

  • Slide 5 of 27

    Facilitators to Employment in Manufacturing (cont.)

  • National Association of Manufacturers predicts shortage of 10 million skilled workers by the year 2010 (Eisen, 2003)
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts a 10%-20% growth in CNC (Computer Numeric Control) programmers and operators through 2012

  • Slide 6 of 27

    Safety Difference

    Question?
    What's different about the computer-related job opportunities in manufacturing compared to those in other work environments? SAFETY!


    Slide 7 of 27

    Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Statistics

    Bureau of Labor Statistics
    Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities (2003)
    Table shows Incidence Rate for Illness and Injuries and Total Fatalities for 2003. The numbers are given for two main categories; a) Manufacturing, b) Professional & Business Services. Incidence rate for illness and injuries:

  • Manufacturing 6.8
  • Professional and business services 2.5
  • Total fatalities:
  • Manufacturing 420
  • Professional and business services 453
  • Surprised at the high rate of fatalities in Professional and business services, we noted that this category divides into two sub-categories;
    1. Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services; which includes accountants, lawyers, and computer programmers
    2. Administrative & Support and Waste Management & Remediation Services, which includes landscape and janitorial services as well as solid and hazardous waste management.
    These two sub-categories yield the following results:
    Incidence rate for illness and injuries:
  • Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services 1.3
  • Admin. & Support and Waste Mgmt. & Remediation Services 4.0
  • Total fatalities:
  • Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services 97
  • Admin. & Support and Waste Mgmt. & Remediation Services 356
  • So, looking at the office based employment vs. the manufacturing employment the incidence rates are 1.3 to 6.8 and the total fatalities are 97 to 420 respectively.


    Slide 8 of 27

    Research Goal

    Review current safety and health regulations to identify potential barriers to employment of people with disabilities in manufacturing.


    Slide 9 of 27

    Background Information

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)


    Slide 10 of 27

    Occupational Safety and Health Act Agencies

    Occupational Safety and Health Act established three agencies in 1970

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)

  • Slide 11 of 27

    Agency Roles

  • OSHA - Sets and enforces the safety and health standards
  • NIOSH - conducts research on safety and health issues in the workplace
  • OSHRC - oversees appeals made by employers against enforcement actions

  • Slide 12 of 27

    Key Terms

    General Duty Clause
    Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act (known as the "General Duty Clause") requires an employer to furnish to its employees: "employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees..."


    Slide 13 of 27

    OSHA Penalties

  • Safety violations fines up to $7,000 per violation
  • Willful or repeated violations up to $70,000 per violation
  • Criminal (resulting in death) up to $250K for an individual or $500K for corporation

  • Slide 14 of 27

    Four types of OSHA Standards

  • Horizontal - across all industries
  • Vertical - industry specific
  • Performance - employer chooses method
  • Specification - standard provides exact procedure or measurement


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